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Park Güell (Catalan: Parc Güell, IPA: [ˈparg ˈɡweʎ]) is a garden complex with architectural elements situated on the hill of El Carmel in the Gràcia district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was designed by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí and built in the years 1900 to 1914. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Works of Antoni Gaudí".
The park was originally part of a commercially unsuccessful housing site, the idea of Count Eusebi Güell, whom the park was named after. It was inspired by the English garden city movement; hence the original English name Park (in the Catalan language spoken in Catalonia where Barcelona is located, the word for "Park" is "Parc", and the name of the place is "Parc Güell" in its original language). The site was a rocky hill with little vegetation and few trees, called Muntanya Pelada (Bare Mountain). It already included a large country house called Larrard House or Muntaner de Dalt House, and was next to a neighborhood of upper class houses called La Salut (The Health). The intention was to exploit the fresh air (well away from smoky factories) and beautiful views from the site, with sixty triangular lots being provided for luxury houses. Count Eusebi Güell added to the prestige of the development by moving in 1906 to live in Larrard House. Ultimately, only two houses were built, neither designed by Gaudí. One was intended to be a show house, but on being completed in 1904 was put up for sale, and as no buyers came forward, Gaudí, at Güell's suggestion, bought it with his savings and moved in with his family and his father in 1906. This house, where Gaudí lived from 1906 to 1926, was built by Francesc Berenguer in 1904. It contains original works by Gaudí and several of his collaborators. It is now the Gaudi House Museum (Casa Museu Gaudí) since 1963. In 1969 it was declared a historical artistic monument of national interest.
It has since been converted into a municipal garden. It can be reached by underground railway (although the stations are at a distance from the Park and at a much lower level below the hill), by city buses, or by commercial tourist buses. While entrance to the Park is free, Gaudí's house, "la Torre Rosa," — containing furniture that he designed — can be only visited for an entrance fee. There is a reduced rate for those wishing to see both Park Güell and the Sagrada Família Church.
Park Güell is skillfully designed and composed to bring the peace and calm that one would expect from a park. The buildings flanking the entrance, though very original and remarkable with fantastically shaped roofs with unusual pinnacles, fit in well with the use of the park as pleasure gardens and seem relatively inconspicuous in the landscape when one considers the flamboyance of other buildings designed by Gaudí.
The focal point of the park is the main terrace, surrounded by a long bench in the form of a sea serpent. To design the curvature of the bench surface Gaudí used the shape of buttocks left by a naked workman sitting in wet clay.[citation needed] The curves of the serpent bench form a number of enclaves, creating a more social atmosphere. Gaudí incorporated many motifs of Catalan nationalism, and elements from religious mysticism and ancient poetry, into the Park. The visitor was originally greeted by two life-size mechanical gazelles (a major euphemistic symbol of 'the young beloved' in the Hebrew strand of the medieval love poetry of the region), but these have since been lost during the turbulence of war.[citation needed]
Roadways around the park to service the intended houses were designed by Gaudí as structures jutting out from the steep hillside or running on viaducts, with separate footpaths in arcades formed under these structures. This minimized the intrusion of the roads, and Gaudí designed them using local stone in a way that integrates them closely into the landscape. His structures echo natural forms, with columns like tree trunks supporting branching vaulting under the roadway, and the curves of vaulting and alignment of sloping columns designed in a similar way to his Church of Colònia Güell so that the inverted catenary arch shapes form perfect compression structures.
The large cross at the Park's high-point offers the most complete view of Barcelona and the bay. It is possible to view the main city in panorama, with the Sagrada Família and the Montjuïc area visible at a distance.
The observant visitor will notice green birds flying around amongst the pigeons and sparrows. These are monk parakeets that have became a common species with a growing population started from some individuals escaped from captivity sometime in the 70s. Like the pigeons they nest in the tall palm trees. Another bird to look out for is the hummingbird that can be seen on some days, if you look hard enough.

PICCIONI.

Il Parco Güell (in catalano Parc Güell) è una delle realizzazioni dell'architetto Antoni Gaudí a Barcellona che appaiono nell'elenco dei patrimoni dell'umanità dell'UNESCO. Progettato agli inizi del Novecento, sarebbe dovuto diventare una città-giardino. È oggi un parco pubblico, aperto tutto l'anno, ed uno dei monumenti-simbolo della città catalana, con un'alta frequentazione turistica.
Realizzato tra il 1900 e il 1914, doveva essere all'origine una specie di città-giardino sul modello inglese. Fu commissionato a Gaudí dal suo mecenate, l'industriale Eusebi Güell, che aveva comprato una collina (El Carmel) a nord della città. Il progetto complessivo dell'insediamento prevedeva alloggi, studi, una cappella ed un parco, per un totale di 60 abitazioni, ma fu acquistato solo uno dei lotti e furono completate solo due abitazioni. In una delle due abitazioni già edificate abitò per molti anni lo stesso Gaudí, con il padre e la figlia della sorella, fino al suo trasloco definitivo nel cantiere della Sagrada Família. La città di Barcellona lo acquistò nel 1922, trasformandolo in parco pubblico.
Gaudí cercò di conservare l'andamento naturale del terreno in rilievo, lasciando libero sfogo alla sua immaginazione, generando un’opera originale dal profilo sinuoso. Per la sua costruzione fece impiego di variopinte ceramiche di recupero e pezzi di vetro, utilizzati come tessere di mosaici colorati, assieme alle sue sculture in calcestruzzo, che rappresentano tutto un universo di animali fantastici, rifacendosi in maniera chiara al concetto del pittoresco.
Fedele al suo stile, Gaudí creò un’opera che si integra nella natura e che la riproduce: tra gli esempi la passeggiata coperta con delle colonne che hanno le forme dei tronchi degli alberi o delle stalattiti, le fontane e le arcate artificiali di roccia.
In cima alla scalinata principale con la fontana a forma di salamandra (simbolo dell'alchimia e del fuoco) si trova la sala ipostila, realizzata come un tempio classico greco. Questa sala, chiamata anche sala delle 100 colonne (benché soltanto 85 siano state completate), si situa sotto la piazza centrale del parco. La piazza è delimitata da un sedile sinuoso come un serpente di 150 m di lunghezza. Su questa panchina straordinaria, seduti in curva, si è al riparo e si vedono i propri vicini, in uno spazio intimo, pur avendo la vista sul resto della panchina.
Nelle altre zone del parco Gaudí creò spazi altrettanto fantastici, dove ponti in cemento armato sembrano strutture ottenute dalla scultura della roccia, dissimulando così l'incredibile sforzo architettonico.

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