Photographer's Note

38º43 ' of latitude north and 9º8 ' of longitude west, Lisbon is moste the occidental of the capitals of the European continent. Situated in the coast occidental of the country, in the zone where the river Tagus to flow in the Atlantic Ocean, occupies an area of 84,6 km2. In contrast of the majority of great urbes, its limits strict are confined to the historical perimeter of the city, what it originated the existence of diverse administratively autonomous cities in its contour. The historical center of Lisbon is risen on seven hills, for that some of the streets are too much steep for the transit automobile. The city is served by three funiculares (Ascensor of the Pipe, Lavra and the Glory) and an elevator (Elevating of Justa Saint). The extremity occidental part of the city is a large extent is filled by the forest Park of Monsanto, one of the biggest urban parks in the Europe, with about 10 km2 of area. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited for the Iberians, who also in the height occupied other places of the Europe bathed by the Atlantic. Of religious monuments for constructed them (the megálitos), some tapirs and menhirs in the outskirts of Lisbon still subsist. In the end of the first milénio before Christ, the Celtas had invaded the territory, crossing itself with the Iberians and giving to origin the native speaker tribes of the céltico, as the Cempsos. Archaeological discoveries testify the existence of a fenício commercial port in the place that since 1200 a.C. was busy for the center of the city, in the south hillside of the hill where if it raises the castle. The magnificent natural port propitiated by the estuary of the river Tagus congregated all the conditions to serve of place of supplying to the fenícias vessels that followed route to the Cassitérides (the present Scilly Isles) and to the Cornualha. Between the Greeks, Lisbon was known as "Olissipo" and "Olissipona", that the popular etimologia associated the Ulisses: according to one old Greek myth, the hero establishes the city, when he leaves of Troy, route to the Atlantic. During Wars Púnicas, after defeat of Aníbal (in whose troops common men of the Cónios had fought), the Romans had decided to delouse Cartago of its well more precious - Hispânia (Latin assignment for the Iberian Peninsula). After the defeat inflicted to the Cartagineses for African Cipião in the eastern Hispânia, the pacification of the west was led by the consul Tenth Rude Júnio. To the service of Rome, Olissipo sent men to fight to the side of the legions against the célticas tribes northwestern; in exchange, the city was integrated in the Empire under the name of Congratulates Iulia, with the statute of Municipium Ciuium Romanorum. By return of 711, Lisbon was taken by the Mouros, under whose domain it blossomed. Come of the North of Africa and the Average East, they had constructed to many mosques and other buildings, as well as a new wall in redor of the city, known for the name of About Moura. With a heterogénea population, Lisbon lodged Christians, Muslen and Jews. In 1147, during conquered, with the aid of French, English, German and Portuguese Cruzade, D. Afonso Enriques it surrounded and it conquered Lisbon. The city was of new in the hands of the Christians The fall of the Muslim domain is one of the most significant events of the history of Lisbon. The Arabs had lost its place in the life of the city, having been substituted by the Portuguese. Muslim in its majority, the population was itself gradually converting the Roman Catolicismo and the mosques had been transforming into churches. Between centuries XV and XVII, at the time of the discoveries, Lisbon it was the wharf of departure of the majority of the Portuguese expeditions - among which if century XVI detaches the trip of Vasco Gama for India in 1497.O was the golden time of the city of Lisbon: the European center of the commerce with the east, and the gold of Brazil.

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Additional Photos by Goncalo Lopes (Bluejeans) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 9250 W: 115 N: 13285] (64251)
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