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Walls of Old Ladoga fortress. First fortress was built in the end of IX century, some of its foundations are discovered by archeologists. Later new citadel was made in year 1114; last reconstruction made in XV century. On the photo you can see Gate Tower and Tower of St Kliment. It's an example of fortifications of early artillery era. Such fortresses are still has a high walls and towers, but with a very fat walls (Gate Tower has a walls 9 meters thick). Later, in XVI century, all around Europe fortifications become very different: not towers, but ravelins and walls become much lower and reinforced with earth, as artillery become mightier.

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Additional Photos by Uhu Owl (Uhu) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 727 W: 0 N: 1712] (8609)
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