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Photographer's Note

Fort Phra Sumen was constructed in 1783 to fortify the old city of Bangkok during the reign of King Rama I. It's one of the two remaining forts from that period. When Bangkok was established as the new capital, forts were built to cover the Chao Phraya River. Defensive rings of canals protected the old city to the east.

The fort is sited at the confluence of the Chao Phraya River and the Banglamphu Canal which was the second ring of canals to be built around the old city of Bangkok in 1782. The first canal was Lod Canal just east of the Grand Palace.

The Banglamphu Canal joins up with the Ong-Ang Canal and extends all the way to the Chao Phraya River to the south, forming a moat to the east of the old city. With the Chao Phraya River to the west, the old city is virtually an island, thus the name Rattanakosin Island.

The fort has two levels of battlements where cannons are deployed and an observation tower. It covers the bend of the Chao Phraya River at the northern end of Rattanakosin Island.

(Source: Tour Bangkok Legacies)

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Additional Photos by Stephen Nunney (snunney) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 10627 W: 63 N: 29874] (130967)
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