Photographer's Note

The St. Andrew Church was built between 1079-1098 and its present architectural facade is from the XII and XIII century. It used to be of importance in the defense of the city. Built in Romanesque style it is one of the oldest buildings in Kraków. From 1320 it was owned by the Order of St. Klara. The Baroque interiors (decorations by Baltazar Fontana, paintings by Karol Dankwart and gilded altars) are in marked contrast to the cruder defensive facade of the church.
(Source: The Visitor Malopolska)

Krakow – Brief history

• In the 11th century, Krakow was the main seat of the first Polish kings of the Piast dynasty.
• In 1241, after a Tartar raid, the settlements situated around the Wawel Hill were greatly destroyed.
• In 1320, the first crowning ceremony of Ladislaus the Short in the Wawel Cathedral strengthened the rank of the capital city of Krakow.
• In 1333, under the last king from the Piast dynasty, Casimir the Great (1333-1370), the city became a rightful member of the Western culture.
• 1364 - The establishment of a university, renovated under King Ladislaus Jagiello (1386- 1434), the first King from the Jagiellon family. It was to become one of the most important European university schools. Many eminent scientists received their education here, including the great Nicolaus Copernicus.
• At the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, the Jagellions forged the first dynastic power in Central Europe, and Krakow became the leading city in this part of the European continent. The Renaissance culture inspired by Italian, German and Dutch centers was in full bloom. After the death of King Sigismund Augustus, the last ruler of the Jagellion family, the age of bloom and development of Krakow came to an end.
• 1569 - Poland united with Lithuania. Krakow became situated on the periphery of the large country and gradually lost its political importance in favour of the centrally situated Warsaw.
• 1609 - King Sigismund III (1587-1632), the first Polish king of the Vasa dynasty, decided to transfer his seat to Warsaw.
• 1655 - Krakow was captured for the first time and plundered by the Swedes.
• 1795 - After the fall of Poland, Krakow became part of the Austrian empire.
• 1918 - Poland regained it's independence and the city slowly began to be restored to life. This was later interrupted by the Second World War when the captive city played an inglorious role of the capital of German-occupied Poland. Krakow beccame a place of martyrology of the Jewish nation; Jews were first confined to the Krakow ghetto, later taken to the Plaszow camp, wherefrom they were taken away to Auschwitz.
• After the war, significant sociological changes took place in Krakow, chiefly related to the uncontrolled development of industry. In 1978, Krakow was recognized by the UNESCO as a monument of world culture and is now a place where international cultural events are organized periodically.

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Additional Photos by George Rumpler (Budapestman) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 8900 W: 3 N: 20435] (82620)
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